Human Foot and Ankle Anatomy



The ankle joint is formed by three bones: fibula, tibia and talus. The first two form a dome that fits the top of the third. Enables, in particular, movements of rotation forward and backward, which are movements of flexion and extension of the foot. In the lateral direction, the stops of the fibular malleolus and medial malleolus, which are the two bony appendages continue fibula and tibia on both sides, preventing a movement full lateral rotation but do allow its inception.

The talus rests on the calcaneus to form a joint rather flat, without much movement. The subtalar joint is a source of conflict and supporting the transmission of forces weight governing body and fine movements of stability of the foot. When cartilage deteriorates this joint, there is an arthritic degeneration and pain, which sometimes requires surgery to suppress or relieve.

Interestingly, given their importance in the generation of sports injuries, an appendix or tail in the talus. On foot jerking back as the place to kick to force a ball, the highlight bone toggles, collided with the back of the tibia and broken. The fracture is sometimes tolerable but others require surgery, removing the broken, to allow the athlete to keep on hitting a ball without pain. Not to be confused with an anatomic variant, the os trigonum of the talus, which offers the image of an X-ray tail loose talus, often indistinguishable from the fracture.

The talus articulates, following the direction that leads to the fingers, with the navicular and cuboid, located in the area inside and outside of foot, respectively. Between the scaphoid and the line formed by the metatarsals, are the three spots. The metatarsals are almost flat bases and a spherical head for articulation with the first joints of the fingers.

Ankle Ligaments

The joint bond required to maintain the cohesion of the bones that form, preventing its displacement, dislocation and allowing your other hand specific movements. The description of all the ligaments of ankle and foot would be subject to highly specialized due to their number and complexity.

The joint capsule surrounds the joint, creating an enclosed space, and helps the ligaments in his mission stabilizer.

– External lateral ligament. Starting from the tip of the external malleolus, is divided into three installments (peroneal tendonitis brace, calcaneal fibular and anterior talar fibular) side holding his ankle. If they break, it is easy for the ankle to twist in movements of investment of the foot.

– Deltoid ligament. On the contrary, this ligament of the medial malleolar tip and holding the inside of the ankle.

– Sindesmal ligament, syndesmosis or tibiofibular ligament. Tie the distal portion of the tibia and fibula to hold them together in that role has vaulted to the articular surface of the dome of the talus. Its failure raises many problems. Healing takes much time and can leave permanent sequelae of pain and instability requiring surgical intervention. The ligament connects two bones all the way front to back of their union, not only in the front of the ankle. So when it breaks, you can leave dangling fringe to the joint and pain in the region posterior ankle.

– In the back of the ankle there is also a network of ligaments connecting the tibia and fibula (posterior tibiofibular), the tibia and talus, etc… We must emphasize the transverse ligament that is injured by the same syndesmosis mechanism, which can be considered a further extension.


Extrinsic muscles of the foot are responsible for the movement of ankle and foot. Although they are in the leg, exercising their traction pulling the bony insertions of ankle and foot. Manage the movements of dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, investment and eversion of the foot.

– Intrinsic muscles of the feet are the ones located on the same footing, get the finger movements: flexion, extension, abduction and adduction.

– Plantar flexors. Are those that pull the foot back. Thus are located in the back of the leg in the calf. They are the soleus and the twins with the Achilles tendon, which is common to both.

– Dorsal flexors are the ones that lift the foot up and are located in the front of the leg. They are the tibialis anterior, peroneus tertius and extensor digitorum.

– Investor’s foot. The anterior tibial inserts into the first metatarsal and the first wedge.

– Evertors foot. The peroneus longus and peroneus brevis is inserted into the first cuneiform and first metatarsal base while the anterior peroneal inserted into the bases of the fourth and fifth.

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